THE School has now fairly started upon its new dual career, and the term's work is in full swing. After storming parties of workmen of various kinds had assaulted the School house, Mr. and Mrs. Haslam were but just enabled to begin residence with the commencement of term. An installation of electric light has been made there; and such is the effect that we hope ore long to have it in the School also, where it is becoming increasingly evident that the present gas pipes will have to be replaced in some way at no distant date.

To turn to the educational side of affairs. Mr. Hodgetts has been appointed Second Master, after a connection with the School of nearly ten years. The School is now arranged as follows :-In the Preparatory and Lower Schools (i.e., to the Third Form) the curriculum is the same for all boys. On a boy's promotion from the Third the choice rests between the University side, where, in addition to sound English, the work includes Latin, Greek (with, at present, German as an alternative), French, Mathematics, and Chemistry ; and the Modern side. This is conducted as an Organized School of Science, and is so arranged as to supply either a Scientific or a Commercial education. The main subjects in addition to English, are French and German (and, if required, Spanish), Pure and Applied Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Drawing, Manual Training, and, for Commercials, Shorthand, Book-keeping, and Commercial Correspondence. Forms Remove, Four, and Five are thus in parallel (Classical and Modern): after which, in the Sixth, boys will be able to specialize in either Classics, Mathematics, or Science.

This brief notice would be incomplete without a reference to the Junior Class, under a Lady Teacher, which the Head Master, to meet the wishes and requirements of a number of parents, has inaugurated.

The Head Master's reconstruction scheme has extended also to the various clubs and societies connected with the School, a list of the various officers of which will be found in the pages of this issue. The systemization of School colours has been receiving attention, and a series of useful and effective designs of caps, ties, and blazers chosen. For some days past the door of one of our editorial cupboards has been adorned by a number of gorgeous "studies of drapery" from the facile brush of the Games Secretary, giving a far better idea than words what our various colours are.

MEETING of the Union was held on Sunday, July 9th, when F. Sampson (O.B.) gave the address. He came amongst them, he said, as a Christian worker of a few years older growth and without giving any formal address would try to speak some words of encouragement to help them in their future meetings.

Never more than at the present time did young workers need encouragement, for never more clearly did men perceive that this age moment by moment, is an age of change. Change, socially, politically, individually. Just then their eyes were directed to the unrest in Africa, or to China, or to some other corner of the world. As Christians they would consider of value their prayers to God that by all these manifest changes the kingdom of our Lord would be extended. Then again let them consider what a change was coming over men's minds touching God's command to preach the gospel to the heathen. There had been changes, too, nearer home. Lately there had been times of doubt and uncertainty in the School. Then there had been changes surely in their own hearts. He had heard of the proposal to secure the membership of every boy in the school in their Scripture Union Branch. Their training ground for heaven was in their school life, What effect did Jesus Christ have upon that life? He supposed he was a " good sort of fellow " when he was at school, well thought of both by boys and masters, but he found out now that lie had lived his school life without Christ, and that God in His mercy had spared him. He had had to repent of many things done in his school course-many boys would perhaps not think them wrong, but he now found they had not been according to the will of the Lord Jesus Christ, He would never tire of pointing them to the only way for boys at school.

The next meeting took place on Sunday, July 23rd, , when Mr. Haslam gave an address. He drew our attention to the small number of places of worship and of ministers in Greater Britain. It was a common thing, he said, in the wilder parts of Canada for a minister to have to ride some twenty-five miles between morning and afternoon service, and another eighteen between afternoon and evening. The size of a diocese was often immense, that of Saskatchewan, for instance, covered over twenty thousand miles. In New Zealand and Australia it was much the same, Mr. Haslam hoped that we would support the Colonial and Continental Bible Society which was doing much to alleviate these hardships. We could do so by taking in the " Greater Britain Messenger," published monthly, by that Society. This Magazine was extremely interesting, and would give us more information on the subject, on which he had touched.

A Meeting of the Union will be held every other Sunday at the School, and we should like to see as many as possible attending. The Secretary (Kirk) will be extremely glad to receive the names of those wishing to join the Union.  

THE following are the results of the recent Science Examinations :­

MATHEMATICS.-Stage II First Class: A. Allison, J. A. Crowther, Second Class W. S. Andrew, W. A. B. Clementson, K. E. Kirk. Stage I - First Class : L. J. Coombe, A. C. Middleton, J. H. G. Monypenny. Second Class : W. K.. Dalton, 11I. Dean, J. E. Dodson, M. Green, R. Masher, F. Moore, C. C. Plowright.

THEORETICAL MECHANICS - SOLIDS.-Elementary Stage-First Class : J. A. Crowther. FLUIDS-Elementary Stage-First Class G. R. Bagshawe, J. A. Crowther, K. E. Kirk. Second Class : A. Allison, W. A. B. Clementson, J. H. Machon, H. W. Turnbull,

THEORETICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY-Advanced Stage-First Class : A. Allison, G. R. Bagshawe, J. A. Crowther. Second Class 0. Glauert. Elementary Stage-First Class : L. J. Coombe, K. E. Kirk, A. C. Middleton, J. H. G. Monypenny, A. 0. Trotter. Second Class : H. Dean, J. E. Dodson, At. Green, N. E. Lean, G. Stevenson. Alternative Stage-Second Class : E. J. Barnes.

PRACTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY.-Advanced Stage-First Class: 0. Glauert. Second Class : A. Allison, W. A. B. Clementson, J. A. Crowther. Elementary Stage-First Class : G. R. Bagshawe, K. E. Kirk, A. C. Middleton, G. Stevenson, H. W. TurnbulL Second Class G. F. Cockayne, L. J. Coombe, 14I. Green, F. Moore, A. L. Turner.

AT a meeting of the Governors of the School, held on Wednesday, July 26th, the following Close Foundation Scholars were elected on the recommendation of the Head Master, by the results of the examination held at the end of June (names in order of merit, with marks) :--Skinner, Broomhill Board School, 548; Widlake, Central Higher Grade Board School, 521 ; Hills, Duchess Road Board School, 428; Chappell, Abbeydale Board School, 417 ; Johnson, Springfield Board School, 414 ; Andrew, Crookesmoor and St. Matthias, 404. The following received honourable mention from the examiners (the Head Master and Staff), and would have been recommended for scholarships had not the number at present available on the foundation been limited by the scheme of the Charity Commissioners to ,six :­ Hoyland, Duchess Road Board School ; (wine, Abbeydale Board School ; Wallis, Springfield Board School ; Minnitt, Abbeydale Board School ; Agar, Sharrow Lane Board School ; Malabar, Burgoyne Road Board School; Hetherington, Sharrow Lane Board School. Appended are a few selections from the examiners' report :--Arithmetic : "A decided advance on last year's work in the ' Code' paper : in' the general paper the improvement was still more marked. A number of boys gained high marks." Algebra : "One boy (Widlake) sent in a very creditable paper." Mechanics : " The two candidates who took this subject gave evidence of some care in observation of a simple experiment." History : "The paper was fairly well done : two boys were very good: two others equally good in quality, though less in quantity." Geography : " The questions were rather beyond the attainments of most of the boys. One gave a fairly correct description of the course of the Danube. Two reasonably correct maps of Hindostan were done." English Grammar : " The simpler parts of the paper were fairly well done. Definitions and paraphrasing seemed too difficult for most." " Reading, dictation, and composition were generally very good, with a few striking exceptions." The behaviour of the boys (nearly 40 in number), both before, during, and after the examination was excellent. The Head Master deeply regrets that it was not possible to give more scholarships, as all the eight who were honourably mentioned, and even others besides, gave evidence of talent and industry enough to enable them to profit by the " higher education."

WE were just setting off on a long and wearisome railway journey south when a young person of the male persuasion from the Printer's office (his official title cannot appear in the pages of this Magazine) brought us a message to the effect that there were a lot of bits of lead lying about their place that wanted arranging into words : would we please supply the missing words? We raid we would-in fact we felt almost able to supply a few on the spot. T'was ever thus : things always seem to happen at the most inconvenient times. So as we took our corner seat just as the train moved off we fell to thinking about the eternal fitness of things; particularly small things. Our thoughts were, however, instantly diverted by the appearance of a porter with a news­paper in one hand and elevenpence change in the other: the train had now gathered a velocity of 200 yards an hour, and the poor man recognized the hopelessness of pursuit. Whose is it," raid a colleague. " Toff's i' yon Fust;" (a lady in the compartment thought he war speaking German !) That poor man bad heroically endeavoured to get a Standard for a gentleman from W.H.S. and Son : but they had been so long publishing it that he was unable to land it at its destination and he was so flurried that the idea never occurred to him of handing it to the guard, whose van had as yet scarce begun to move. Poor man, disappointment weighed heavy on him ; but we could not help admiring the fortitude with which he resignedly dropped the change into his pocket and . proceeded to make himself master of the contents of the paper. It was a touching sight. A paltry elevenpence solatium for a man who had failed to discharge a mission which would have probably secured him two pennyworth of recognition. It was just a little illustration of the kind of compensations that nature and society continually afford, After a time it got beastly cold : it was mid-winter, and we observed with delight that means for warming the carriage were conspicuous by their absence. Soon we came to the very head-quarters of our railway, where, according to the usual custom on expresses, we had a good long wait to let the engine fittings cool, as we suppose. Here foot-warmers were served out in the proportion of two bottles to one first class passenger, and not any to eight in a third class. Mark, however, where the compensation came in. Later on, towards mid-day in fact, when lower latitude and elevation and a meridian sun made things bearable, we left the "main" line for a "branch." on which the longest journey we could take would be less than one hour. Here the carriages were "steam heated " and the temperature about 120" in the shade. One might go on instancing compensations for ever. Take that necessary and fairly abundant article the boy. Think how beautifully nature has endowed him in the matter of appetite : why he can eat every day, and till day : he's a perfect gastronomic miscellany and yet ho seldom suffers in consequence. Then mark how beautifully the same nature compensates by endowing the same boy with a disinclination to work ! We have known what we may term the very spirit of compensation to affect whole bodies of boys at times. We call to mind a certain football team which we once knew. It played a match one afternoon, and somehow it seemed fairly paralysed. The ground hail everything the matter with it' that ground could have, and the ball seemed to have a trick of getting away perversely of itself; and all the speedy sprinters seemed like unto old men with timber legs ; and in fact that team seemed quite " Of." But that same night the spirit of the mighty gods came upon the members of that team, and they attended the meeting of a certain Literary and Scientific Society; and there they performed such bersarker feats, that if the reader wants them equalled he needs must hark back unto the days of Hereward the Wake.

Just than, we were still journeying, we desired to locate ourselves, but all the stations were named after somebody's soap, or pure tea, or starch, or furniture, or mustard, or something; so we gave it up and turned our attention to the jerrybuilding that seemed to be going on everywhere. Now here's 11 a fruitful topic. The gentle j. b. buyeth up a swamp and straightway buildeth there, regardless of consequences. But notice the marvellous compensation ensuing. The foundations of the houses are probably laid upon nothing but disease germs, and sickness is assured: but behold in every Eden of this hind nature or society or some ocult power straightway locates several medical men they are there on the spot, "ready, aye, ready!" Si exemplum requiris, circumspice. There are certain things the j. b. cannot understand; for example, that while certain kinds of sand form, in conjunction with lime, a serviceable mortar, the same effect cannot be produced when road sweepings or garden soil take the place of sand. By way of compensation, however, he will probably add to our scientific knowledge of the breaking strain of materials. It is well known that a board three inch by half inch will support a great weight when placed edgeways after the fashion of a rafter in a house. How great that weight is the j. b. has apparently set himself diligently to work to find out. Taking the " world compelling " principle that " union is strength " for his motto lie erects long lines of houses that, though they have each some flowery title, silently proclaim " United we stand, divided we fall." This in fact in the days of the Commonwealth (when "sentiment" names were fashionable) would probably have been the name of the first " Terrace " erected : then Old Noll would have stepped in and barbecued the builder, and the plague would have ceased from out the land.

We still sped on as the whole question of building and architecture opened out to us, and we perforce exclaimed, " Oh, ugliness, thy name is architecture," at least, as we are very often compelled to see it. Why, when a man designs. say, a large school laboratory, he should take the Heidelberg tun for his model is more than we can tell. That passing thought about a chemical laboratory suggests a grand "compensation." Some parents object to their sons learning "stinks" (post-classical term for chemistry), on the ground that Tommy occasionally comes home with his pants in a state of dissolution and soma cock and bull story about an " experiment." This sort of thing, however, has this advantage-when that boy comes to man's estate he wont go and raise an earthquake in his house because the roast beef is a little "rare,' or the plum padding turns out of the consistency of chilled shot. No, he will remember that cookery is a science, and that his own chemical experiments were at times uncertain in their results and will be lenient, He may think a lot, but he will keep it to himself'. Here we are again on the subject of boys. Why do people say, " boys will be boys ? " Perhaps it is a case of the wish being father to the thought. Fond parent detects in his offspring lurking propensity to be something else, torpedo, flying, machine, or perhaps, street pavement, and endeavours to gain consolation from the above formula, which he tries to believe, putting any interpretation on the word S` boys" which the occasion seems to require. Personally we don't mind boys being boys. As boys we like them; we tolerate them as parrots, monkeys, and in various other capacities too numerous to mention; but when we cannot stand the boy is when he tacketh himself on to a cigarette (price one centime) at a tender age, and refuses to be assured that that does not make a man of him right away. Little reeks he what material that paper abomination may be made of, the outside presumably is paper of the chemically produced kind, but the " charge," a problem-vegetable, animal, and mineral. Yes, as a boy we like him, but as a " refuse destructor," no !   Q. C.


At Broomhall Park, on Wednesday, June 28th. Cornu played a very good game. Glauert also contributed a useful 17. Our bowling was very effective.


Played at Collegiate Crescent, Wednesday, July 5th, and ended in an easy victory for the School. Score:-


Played at Broomhall Park, on Saturday, July 1st, and ended in a draw. Score


Played at Bramall Lane, Saturday, July 8th. Resulted in an easy win for the home team. Coombe (not out, 30), Glauert (18), and Froggatt (14) were the chief scorers for the School. Score :­

S.R.G.S. v. DONCASTER GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Played at Doncaster, Wednesday, July 12th. Score:-­


Played at the School, Saturday, July 15th. The home team won easily by 71 runs. The highest scores for the School were made by G. M. Cornu (40) and 0. Glauert (20). Cornu also distinguished him­self with the ball, taking 5 wickets for 5 runs. Score:-


Played at Chesterfield, Wednesday, 19th July. This, the return match, was postponed from May 24th. The chief feature of this match was the way in which the Sheffield wickets went down. Not satisfied with doing the '° hat trick," Breedon took 5 wickets in 5 successive balls, and 4 more wickets wont down to his account also. He got 9 wickets for 29 runs, thus averaging 3.22 runs a wicket. Coombe was the chief scorer among the Sheffielders, getting 19 not out, while Glauert scored 13 and Corrnu 10. Ten of our XI were tried for bowling, but notwithstanding this, Chesterfield won by 42 runs.


Played on Tuesday, July 25th. This annual fixture was to have been played the Saturday previous, but rain prevented, and it was with great difficulty that an Old Boys' team could be got together. As it was there were three substitutes. Winning the toss, Thomas batted first, opening the innings with Eyre. Only a poor total of 59 was reached, Eyre (20) and Hounsfield (15) being easily top scorers. Cornu had the remarkable analysis of 8 wickets for 23 runs, the batsmen seeming unable to time his "slows." The School ground fielding was distinctly good, the only catch failing to Coombe, who took the ball very smartly in the long field and sent back Thomas. The Present replied with 132, of which the chief feature was an excellent innings of 52 by Cornu, who eclipsed all his previous performances and concluded his career at the School in a manner worthy of his reputation. His innings contained four bits out of the ground, while he gave three chances-an easy one to cover point, and difficult ones to the bowler and wicket-keeper. Glauert was second top scorer with 21. After the match Mrs. Haslam kindly entertained the teams to tea.

IT is the general opinion that this year's eleven has, in every way, maintained the reputation of the School in the cricket field-an opinion which is justified by the results as they appear on paper, Of the matches played 8 were won, 2 drawn, and 6 lost ; against Schools 7 matches were played, 5 won and 2 lost. The best batting performance was that of Cornu in the game against the Old Boys, on which occasion he contributed 52 runs in splendid style. With the ball, Brown's 5 wickets for 2 runs against Doncaster Grammar School, and Cornu's 8 wickets for 23 runs against the Old boys were the best feats. The highest score made against the School was 162 by the Clergy; the lowest (21) by Doncaster Grammar School. On six occasions the School has passed the hundred.

We have always been strong in attack, and in Lee and Brown had fast trundlers of more than ordinary merit. Against good steady bats­ men, when we could only essay varieties of pitch, we felt the need of a good slow bowler. Cornu and Froggatt were very useful change bowlers, but had to rely solely on their good length for their wickets. The batting was of the uncertain order, although Cornu and Coombe could usually be relied upon. Glauert and Lister at times made runs, but their defence was imperfect through want of proficiency in the back and forward styles. On a dry true wicket, their forward style was undoubtedly successful, but on the treacherous and sometimes sticky wickets on which the team had to play, no batsman could be said to be effective unless he could play back. In Dodson we, unfortunately rather late in the season, unearthed an extremely useful stone-waller, and his careful batting in the Wesley match was one of the features of the game.

Our fielding, owing to constant practice, greatly improved, and most of the team could be relied upon to hold a catch. We cannot, however, lay too much stress upon the necessity of throwing the ball to the wicket-keeper instead of at the wickets. Every player should remember he is playing for the team and not for himself, and that he will deserve far more credit for a smart throw-in than a fluky scattering of the stumps.

The Second XI included many promising players. Wigfull's 30 and Ricketts' 26 runs against Rotherham G.S. Second were very fine efforts ; while in Proctor, Merryweather, Derecourt, we have other good batsmen. Lean, Russell, and Hallam were all useful with the ball. These will form an excellent nucleus for next year's team, and we look to them to uphold the reputation of the School, and if possible, to enhance the success of the Cricket Season 1899.




No. Of Innings.

Times not out.

Highest Score.


G. M. Cornu






L. J. Coombe






0. Glauert






1. brown






W. Froggatt






C. W. Dodson






F. M. Lee

5 9





W. K. Dalton






B. Lister






A. Allison













G. M. Cornu. .






I.. Brown






F. M. Lee






W. Froggatt..






N. E. Lean ..






W. K. Dalton






G. S. Russell, 2-0-5-1 ; 0. Glauert, 3-1-6-1 ; Coombe, 3-0-8-1 ; Derecourt, 6--l-10-0; Hooson, 2-0-8-0; Dodson, 1-1-0-0; Lister, 4-2-8-0; Allison, 6-1-18-0.

G. M. CORNU (Captain).-Undoubtedly the best all-round player in the team. Has a free style of batting, with a punishing off-drive. Bowls a slow-medium good length ball. Is invaluable in the field, is ever on the alert, and possesses a safe pair of hands. In the averages and analyses holds premier position. In every way an ideal captain.

O. GLAUERT (Vice-Captain).-After an indifferent start has played extremely well and consistently. Drives well and makes the most of his reach. Has kept wicket with moderate success.

I. BROWN.-Made some useful scores at the beginning of season, but should stand up firmly to the bowling and play with a straight bat, Has clone a splendid season's work with the ball, and is smart in the field. Obtained his cap.

L. J. CooMBE,-The most improved batsman in the team. Possesses a grand defence and does not forget to punish a bad ball. Has a rather dangerous forward stroke. Was second in the averages a safe field. Thoroughly deserved his cap.

F. M, LEE.-Had more than his share of ill-luck with the bat, and never regained his confidence. Had a highly successful season with the ball, and is a good field. Gained his cap.

W. FRoGGATT.-Has turned out a good all-round man. Has been very useful in defence, but should cultivate a straight bat and learn to keep the ball down. Bowls a slow medium ball, and keeps an extremely good length.

C. W. DoDsoN.-The stone-waller of the eleven. Possesses some useful scoring strokes, but should be quicker between the wickets. Is rather slack in the field.

B. LISTER.---Plays a clashing game, but should cultivate a safer defence. A splendid field.

W. K. DALToN.-A batsman with plenty of style, Nervous when starting, but plays well when settled down. A good field.

A. ALLISON.-Has shown all-round improvement, but should pay more attention to practice. Stands badly at wicket when batting. With the gloves he has occasionally been fairly successful.

B. DERECOURT.- Has done good work on several occasions. Shows fair promise for next season, but must be steadier. Poor field.

B. COCKAYNE. - Owing to absence was prevented from playing during the greater part of the season. Fairly successful with the bat.

LEAN, RUSSELL, HOOSON. - Showed promising form with bat and ball, and should be of great assistance next season,

THE amalgamation of the various Clubs connected with the School has been effected. The following is the list of officers :­ COMMITTEE.-President- -The Head Master; Vice-President-Mr. Hodgetts ; Hon, Treasurer-Mr. Humphreys ; Hon. Secretary-Mr. Merrikin ; School Secretary - Lister*.

FOOTBALL CLUB. - Coombe* (Capt.), Lister* (Hon. Sec. and Vice-Captain), Furnival, Mr. Merrikin.

HARRIERS. - Dunnill* (Sec.), Davies I, Davies II, Mr. Nicholson. MUSICAL SOCIETY. - Monypenny* (Sec.), Froggatt, Plowright, Mr. Watson.

DEBATING SOCIETY. - Allison* (Sec.), Kirk*, Clementson, Mr. Humphreys.

FIELDS COMMITTEE. - Dalton, Barton, Hooson, Mr. King. CHESS CLUB. - Kirk, Allison, Dalton, Mr. Overend.

(*Ex-officio members of Mag. Committee).

We have much pleasure in welcoming Mr. G. W. Humphreys, B.A., Scholar of Queens' College, Cambridge. Mr. Humphreys gained a First Division, Second Class, in the Classical Tripos.

This term's vacancies on the Games Committee have been filled by the election of Allison, Barton, Dalton, Dunnill, Froggatt, Furnival, and Hooson.

Coombe has been awarded his Football cap.

Second XI caps have been awarded to Allison, Barton, Davies I, Dunnill, Froggatt, Furnival, Lister, Merryweather.

Crowther and Clementson have been appointed School Editors of the Magazine. Dr. J. Stokes will continue to act as Old Boys' Editor, in conjunction with Mr. W. G. Walker, and Mr. Hodgetts as General Editor.

Dalton has been appointed by the Football Committee its official reporter to the Magazine.

We tender our hearty congratulations to those who have been successful in the South Kensington Examinations, and also to the following:­J. A. Pate, Sizarship at Corpus Christ College, Cambridge. Goodhart (O.B., recently of Chigwell School, Essex) a similar distinction.

A, S. Hahn, the Entrance Scholarship, valve £110, at the Medical School, Sheffield University College.

Downing, a "Thorpe Mappin" studentship at the Technical School.

B. 1. Dalton (O.B., Scholar of Rugby School) passed the Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board Exam. with honours.

T. H. Senior (O.B.) formerly Assistant Master at Dean Close School, Cheltenham, and Pate of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, was ordained to the curacy of Christ Church, Gipsy Hill, Upper Norwood, S.E., on Sept. 24th last.

The following are the names and forms of the new boys this term:-4th Form - Iliffe I ; Remove - Iliffe II; 3rd Form-Andrew II, Bramley, Chappell, Johnson II, Ibbotson, Hills, Howell, Skinner, Widlake, Wright; 2nd Form Beard 1, Muxlow, Hargreaves; 1st Form-Appleby, Beard II, Iliffe III, Richmond, Mercer, Chambers, Trickett II, Howison ; Prep. I-Kirk II, Eardley, Harland, Deakin ; Prep. II - Gibson, Forsdike, Hutchinson IT, Stirgess, Wain II. Junior Class-Harrison I, Harrison II, Kerridge.

At the meeting of the Governors, held on Wednesday, Oct. 18th, the following boys were awarded Scholarships :­

FOUNDATION SCHOLARSHIPS (OPEN).-Middleton, Kirk, May, Edeson, Dodson II.

CONTINUATION SCHOLARSHIPS (CLOSE).-Allison, Crowther, Monypenny, Andrew, Plowright, Masher IT, Dean.

The following O.B's. who left School in July have commenced residence at Cambridge this Term:-G. Norwood, Scholar of St. John's College ; 0. Glauert, Scholar of Clare College ; C. Coore, St. John's College ; J. A. Pate, Corpus Christi College.

E. D, Black (O.B.) has again won the Gentlemen's Championship Singles at the Scarborough Lawn Tennis Tournament.

We acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the following con­temporaries :-The Leys Fortnightly (8), Our Magazine, Pelican, Thistle (2), Vigornian (2).